Canada and the United States supplied India with the technology necessary to create a nuclear weapons program, dubbed CIRUS (Canada-India Reactor, United States).
Part - 2
Canada and the United States supplied India with the technology necessary to create a nuclear weapons program, dubbed CIRUS (Canada-India Reactor, United States). Canada sold India the reactor on the condition that the reactor and any by-products would be "employed for peaceful purposes only.". Similarly, the United States sold India heavy water for use in the reactor "only... in connection with research into and the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes". India, in violation of these agreements, used the Canadian-supplied reactor and American-supplied heavy water to produce plutonium for their first nuclear explosion.
The India exploded a nuclear device in 1974, which it has consistently claimed was for peaceful purposes. Others saw it as a response to China's nuclear weapons capability. In 1999 it deployed its own medium-range missile and has developed an intermediate-range missile capable of reaching targets in China's industrial heartland. In 1998 India conducted its 2nd nuclear explosion . Indian security policies are driven by.
- Its determination to be recognized as a dominant power in the region.
- Its increasing concern with China's expanding nuclear weapons and missile delivery programs.
- Its concern with Pakistan's capability to deliver nuclear weapons deep into India
- And to be the permanent member of security council.
It perceives nuclear weapons as a cost-effective political counter to China's nuclear and conventional weaponry.India has had an unhappy relationship with China since 1962 war, in which it was defeated by China.
Pakistan’s nuclear weapons development program (1976) was in response to neighbouring India’s development of nuclear weapons (1974). Bhutto rallied Pakistan’s scientists to build the atomic bomb for national security. Pakistan is believed to have produced the material for its weapons using china help. In 1990 the U.S administration cut off aid because it was unable to see that Pakistan was not pursuing a policy of manufacturing nuclear weapons.
Pakistan has made it clear since 1996 that it had become nuclear capable and that if India staged a nuclear test Pakistan would immediately respond with its own nuclear explosive device. It is assumed to now have extreme highly-enriched uranium for up to forty nuclear warheads. In May 1998 Pakistan conducted six underground tests in response to India, nuclear tests.
Pakistan has addressed issues of survivability in a nuclear conflict through first strike capability as well as second strike capability. Pakistan has been dealing with efforts to develop new weapons and at the same time, have a strategy for surviving a nuclear war. Pakistan has built hard and deeply buried storage and launch facilities to restore second strike capability in a nuclear war.
It was confirmed that Pakistan has built Soviet-style road-mobile missiles, of-the-art air defenses around strategic sites, and other concealment measures In 1998, Pakistan had 'at least six secret locations' and since then it is believed Pakistan may have many more such secret sites. In 2008, the United States admitted that it did not know where all of Pakistan's nuclear sites are located.
Pakistani defence officials have continued to deflect American requests for more details about the location and security of the country's nuclear sites. In the 1970s, Pakistan first focused on the plutonium route. They expected to obtain the fissile material from a reprocessing plant provided by France. This plan failed due to U.S intervention. Pakistan, not wanting to give up, redoubled its efforts to obtain uranium enrichment technology.
The main efforts towards the direction were done under Dr. Khan returned to Pakistan in 1976 and initiated the uranium enrichment process. In 2003, IAEA unearthed a nuclear black market with close ties to Pakistan. it was widely believed to have direct involvement of the government of Pakistan. This claim could not be verified due to the refusal of the government of Pakistan to allow IAEA to interview the alleged head of the nuclear black market, who happened to be no other than Dr. Khan.
Dr. Khan later confessed to his crimes on national television, bailing out the government by taking full responsibility. He confessed to nuclear proliferation from Pakistan to Iran and North Korea. He was immediately given presidential immunity. Exact nature of the involvement at the governmental level is still unclear, but the manner in which the government acted cast doubt on the sincerity of Pakistan.
Pak Nuclear Doctrine (Policy)
Pakistan's motive, as stated by its former President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq in 1985, for pursuing a nuclear weapons development program is to counter the threat posed by its principal rival, India. Pakistan's strategy is simply defensive vis-a-viz India. Following are the pillars of pak nuclear doctrine.
- Building and maintaining a credible minimum deterrent (Deterrence)against India.
- A posture of no-first-use, nuclear weapons will only be used in retaliation against a nuclear attack on Pak territory).
- Nuclear retaliation to a first strike.
- Continuance of strict control on export of nuclear and missile related materials and technology, participation in the fissile material cut off treaty negotiations.
- Continued commitment to the goal of a nuclear-free world through global verifiable and no discriminatory nuclear disarmament.
Pakistan's generals have sought to make it impossible for India to achieve their goals. They have articulated a set of conditions under which they will use their nuclear weapons. Pakistani nuclear weapons will be used, according to General Kidwai of Pakistan's Strategic Planning Division / NCA, only "if the very existence of Pakistan as a state is at stake" and this, he specified, meant.
- India attacks Pakistan and takes a large part of its territory.
- 1ndia destroys a large part of Pakistan armed forces.
- India imposes an economic blockade on Pakistan.
Pakistan has not signed the non-proliferation treaty (NPT) or the comprehensive test ban treaty (CTBT). “Pakistan remains steadfast in its refusal to sign the NPT, stating that it would do so only after India joined the treaty only after developing a Pakistan's best interest, but that Pakistan domestic consensus on the issue, and have India's decision.
US has regularly shown its concerns that Pakistan is not a responsible states its nuclear stockpile is not in safe hands. There is a greater threat from Islam, extremists / terrorists, who could assume the control of these weapons and pose, serious threat to the world peace (Nuclear terrorism). Pakistan has taken following safeguards to dilute the international community's apprehensions.
Musharraf established "National Command Authority" in this regard in 2OO0.This organization has been authorized to make decisions about Pakistan's nuclear posturing. The NCA safeguards Pakistan's all nuclear assets. It controls development and deployment of nuclear weapons; it is also responsible for war-tin command and control. It will take the crucial decision to use nuclear weapons or in case of a potentially dangerous war situation viz-a-viz India.
NCA is also believe to have developed and implemented its own version of permissive action link technology and has well secured its nuclear assets through codal system, similarly the weapons have also been kept in dis-assembled position and spread at various locations in order to avoid mishap.
A 2010 study by the congressional research service titled “Pakistan’s” nuclear weapons, proliferation and security issues noted that even through Pakistan had taken several steps to enhance Nuclear security in recent years “Instability in Pakistan has called the extent and durability of these reforms into question, according to another source, in july 2011, US is seriously considering to get a resolution passed in security council regarding dismantling of Pakistan's nuclear assets