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Tue, Sep

Nuclear Issue Proliferation & Non-proliferation (Part 1)

Current Affairs
Typography

A nuclear weapons are the explosive devices. Their use and control has been a major focus of international relations

Introduction:

A nuclear weapons are the explosive devices. Their use and control has been a major focus of international relations policy since their debut Since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for testing purposes and demonstration purposes. A few states have possessed such weapons or are suspected of seeking them. The only countries known to have detonated nuclear weapons—and that acknowledge possessing such weapons—are (chronologically) the United States (1944), the Soviet Union (1949), the United Kingdom (1952), France (1960), the People's Republic of China (1964), India (1974), Pakistan (1998), and North Korea (2006). Israel is also widely believed to possess nuclear weapons, though it does not acknowledge having them.

Proliferation (Nuclear war strategy)

History Of Proliferation

Research into the development of nuclear weapons was undertaken during World War II by the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Japan, and the USSR. The United States was the first and is the only country to have used a nuclear weapon in war, when it used two bombs against Japan in August 1945 With their loss during the war, Germany and Japan ceased to be involved in any nuclear weapon research.

In August 1949, the with their loss during the war, Germany and Japan ceased to be involved in any nuclear weapon research. In August 1949, the USSR tested a nuclear weapon. The United Kingdom tested a nuclear weapon in October 1952. France developed a nuclear weapon in 1960. The people’s republic of China denoted a nuclear weapon in 1964. India exploded a nuclear device in 1974. And Pakistan tested a weapon in 1998. In 2006 North Korea conducted a nuclear test.

Why States Go Nuclear (Why Prolifration?)

Nuclear Warfare strategy is a set of policies that deal with preventing fighting a nuclear war. The policy of trying to prevent an attack by a nuclear weapon from another country by threatening nuclear retaliation is known as the strategy of nuclear deterrence. The goal in deterrence is to always maintain a second strike capability (the ability of a country to respond to nuclear attack with one of its own) and potentially to strive for first strike status (the ability to completely destroy an enemy’s nuclear force before they could retaliate). This view argues that, unlike conventional.

Some very prominent scholars advocate some forms of nuclear proliferation, arguing that it will decrease the like hood of war. One of such scholars argued that the logic of mutually assured destruction (MAD) is a long strategy that avoids the nuclear war among states. He see the cold war as the ultimate proof of MAD logic the only occasion when enmity between two great powers did not result in military conflict.

Efforts at non-proliferation

In the late 1940s, lack of mutual trust was preventing the United States and the Soviet Union from making ground towards international arms control agreement but by the 1960s steps were being taken to limit both the proliferation of nuclear weapons to other countries and the environmental effects of nuclear testing. The Partial Test Ban Treaty (1963) restricted all nuclear testing to underground nuclear testing, to prevent contamination from nuclear fallout, while the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty 11968) attempted to place restrictions on the types of activities which signatories could participate in, with the goal of allowing the transference of non-military nuclear technology to | member countries without fear of proliferation.

In 1957 the international atomic energy agency (IAEA) was established under the mandate of the United Nations in order to encourage the development of the peaceful applications of nuclear technology, provide international safeguards against its misuse and facilitate the application of safety me— 1996, many nations signed and ratified the Comprehensive Test B.

Treaty which prohibits all tasting of nuclear weapons, which would impose a significant hindrance to their development by any complying country. Additional treaties have governed nuclear weapons stockpiles between individual countries, such as the SALT I and START I treaties, which limited the numbers and types of nuclear weapons between the United States and the Soviet Union.

Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)-1968

At present, 189 countries are States Parties to the Treaty on the Nonproliferation of Nuclear Weapons, more commonly known as the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty or NPT. These include the five Nuclear Weapons States (NWS)recognized by the NPT: the People's Republic of China, France, Russian federation, the L!&, and the United States. Notable non-signatories to the NPT are Israel, Pakistan, and India (the latter two have since tested nuclear weapons, while Israel is considered by most to be an unacknowledged nuclear weapons state). North Korea was once a signatory but withdrew in January 2003.

The legality of North Korea's withdrawal is debatable but as of 9th October 2006, North Korea clearly possesses the capability to make a nuclear explosive device. In 1995, NPT parties reaffirmed their commitment to a fissile materials cut off treaty to prohibit the production of any further fissile material for weapons. This aims to complement the comprehensive test ban treaty of 1996 and to codify commitments made by the United States the UK, France and Russia to cease production of weapons material as well as putting similar ban on china. This treaty will also put more pressure on Israel, India and Pakistan to agree to international verification.

Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT)-1996

It bans all nuclear explosions in all environments It was signed by the states including five of the eight then nuclear-capable states. As of 2010, 153 states have ratified the CTBT and another 29 states have signed but not yet ratified.



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