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Tue, Sep

Democracy in Pakistan (Part 1 & 2)

Current Affairs
Typography

Democracy

Democracy is a form of government where power is derived from the people, either by direct (direct democracy) or by means of elected representatives of the people (representative democracy The term comes from the Greek: (demokratia) "rule of the people",

Which was coined from (demos) "people" and (Kratos) "power", in the fifth-fourth century BC to denote the political systems then existing in some Greek city-states, notably . Equality and freedom have been identified as important characteristics of democracy since ancient times. These principles are reflected in all citizens being equal before the law and having equal access to power.

For example, in a representative democracy, every vote has equal weight, no restrictions can apply to anyone wanting to become a representative, and the freedom of its citizens is secured by legitimized rights and liberties which are generally protected by a constitution.^ The "majority rule" is often described as a characteristic feature of democracy,. An essential process in representative democracies is competitive elections that are fair both substantively and procedurally. Furthermore, freedom of political expression, freedom of speech, and freedom of the press are essential so that citizens are informed and able to vote in their personal interests.

Popular sovereignty is common but not a universal motivating subject for establishing a democracy. In some countries, democracy is based on the philosophical principle of equal rights. Many people use the term "democracy" as shorthand for liberal democracy, which may include additional elements such as political pluralism; equality before the law; the right to petition elected officials for redress of grievances; due process; civil liberties; human rights; and elements of civil society outside the government.

In the United States, separation of powers is often cited as a supporting attribute, but in other countries, such as the United Kingdom, the dominant philosophy is parliamentary sovereignty (though in practice judicial independence is generally maintained. Democracy has its origins in Ancient Greec - however other countries have significantly contributed to the evolution of democracy such as Ncient Rome, Europe, and North and South America. The concept of representative democracy arose largely from ideas and institutions that developed during the European Middle Ages and the Age of Enlightenment and in the American and French Revolutions. Democracy has been called the "last form of government” and has spread considerably across the globe. Currently over 120 countries are considered to be Democracies.

Forms

Representative

Representative democracy involves the selection of government officials by the people being represented. If the head of state is also democratically elected then it is called a democratic republic. Representatives may be elected or become diplomatic representatives by a particular district (or constituency), or represent the entire electorate proportionally proportional systems, with some using a combination of the two.

Parliamentary

Parliamentary democracy is a representative democracy where government is appointed by parliamentary representatives as opposed to a 'presidential rule' wherein the President is both head of state and the head of government and is elected by the voters. Under a parliamentary democracy, government is exercised by delegation to an executive ministry and subject to ongoing review checks and balances by the legislative parliament elected by the people.

Democracy in Pakistan (Part 2)

Martial Law periods in Pakistan

  1. 1958-69 AyubKhan
  2. 1969-71 yahya Khan
  3. 1977- 88 Zia ul haq
  4. 1999-2008 Musharraf


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