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European Union

Current Affairs
Typography

Introduction

EU is an organization of European countries formed after world war 2 seeking economic and political cooperation and integration. One of its major objectives was to establish single market by reducing trade barriers and melting of the borders among the countries. The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states the process of integration started in..

1952 and ultimately economic union was established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993. With over 500 million citizens the EU combined generated an estimated 28% share (16.5 trillion US Dollars in 2009).

The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states and ensures the free movement of people, good services and capital, including the abolition of passport controls by the schenge agreement, between 22 EU states. It enacts legislation in justice and home affair and maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and region development. Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency, the European constituting the Eurozone.

Having a legal personality, the EU is able to conclude treaties with countries, has devised the Common Foreign and Security Policy, thus developing a limited n in European defense and foreign policy. Permanent diplomatic missions of they are established around the world and representation at the United Nations, C8 and G-20 is maintained.

The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranationalism intergovernmentalism. In certain areas, decisions are taken by independent supranational institutions, while in others, they are made through negotiate between member states. Important institutions of the FTI include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European central bank. The European parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens.

History & Expansion:

1952 European Coal and steel Community (ECSC) by France and Germany.

1953 - Treaty of Rome- European Economic community (EEC) i.e. Common market

1993 - Maastricht Treaty. European union (Eli) fully established by 12 members. It adopted new reforms like.

  • Common Foreign Policy.
  • Policy of single currency.
  • Common policy - EU.

1999 - Single currency (euro)

Robert Schuman proposing the Coal and Steel Community on 9 May 1950,

The 1957 Rome Treaty created the European Economic Community.

After World War II, moves towards European integration were seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent. The very first attempt to unite Europeans was the creation of European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1952 which, while having, the modest aim of centralized control of the previously national coal and steel illustration of its member states, was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe".. The founding members of the Community were France and West Germany.

In 1957, these six countries signed the Treaties of Rome, which extended the earlier cooperation within the European Coal and Steel Community and created the European Economic Community, (EEC) establishing a customs union and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy. In 1967 the Merger of above institutions created a single set of institutions for the three communities, known as the European Communities (EC), although commonly just as the European Community.

In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom, In 1985, the Schengen Agreement led the way toward the creation of o^ borders without passport controls between most member states and Home nun member states. In 1986, the European flag began to be used by the Community and the Single European Act was signed.

In 1990s, after the fall of Soviet union the former East Germany became part of the community as part of a newly United Germany with enlargement towards Eastern and central Europe were allowed to join. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht treaty can into force on 1st November 1993, in 2002 Euro notes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Science then the Eurozone has increased encompass sixteen countries.

On 1st December 2009 the Lisbon Treaty entered into force after a protracted controversial birth. This reformed many aspects of the FU but in particular create a permanent president of the European council. The Union’s membership has grown from the original six founding states Belgium, France(then west) Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, to present day 27 by successive enlargement as countries accede to the treaties by doing so. The EU’s member states cover an area of 4,422,773 square kilometers.

Foreign relations:

Steps for a more wide ranging coordination in foreign relations began in 1970. Common Foreign and Security Policy Policy (CFSP) by the Maastricht Treaty. The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co¬operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. The CFSP requires unanimity among the member states on the appropriate policy to follow on any particular issue.

Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement This influence on the internal affairs of other countries b generally referred to as "soft power", as opposed to military "hard power".

In the UN as an observer and working together, the EU has gained influence tn areas such as aid due to its large contributions in that field. In the GS, the 11 has rights of membership besides chairing/hosting summit meetings and is represented at meetings by the presidents of the Commission and the Council.

In the world Trade Organisation (WTO), where all 27 member states are represented The European Union does not have one unified military. The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a strong military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defense purposes. Twenty-one El, members are members of NATO while the remaining member states follow policies of neutrality.

EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from Africa to the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East. In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defense cooperation is increasingly relying on .great power cooperation.

Introduction

EU is an organization of European countries formed after world war 2 seeking economic and political cooperation and integration. One of its major objectives was to establish single market by reducing trade barriers and melting of the borders among the countries. The European Union (EU) is an economic and political union of 27 member states the process of integration started in.. 1952 and ultimately economic union was established by the Treaty of Maastricht in 1993. With over 500 million citizens the EU combined generated an estimated 28% share (16.5 trillion US Dollars in 2009).

The EU has developed a single market through a standardized system of laws which apply in all member states and ensures the free movement of people, good services and capital, including the abolition of passport controls by the schenge agreement, between 22 EU states. It enacts legislation in justice and home affair and maintains common policies on trade, agriculture, fisheries and region development. Sixteen member states have adopted a common currency, the European constituting the Eurozone.

Having a legal personality, the EU is able to conclude treaties with countries, has devised the Common Foreign and Security Policy, thus developing a limited n in European defense and foreign policy. Permanent diplomatic missions of they are established around the world and representation at the United Nations, C8 and G-20 is maintained.

The EU operates through a hybrid system of supranationalism intergovernmentalism. In certain areas, decisions are taken by independent supranational institutions, while in others, they are made through negotiate between member states. Important institutions of the FTI include the European Commission, the Council of the European Union, the European central bank. The European parliament is elected every five years by EU citizens.

History & Expansion:

1952 European Coal and steel Community (ECSC) by France and Germany.

1953 - Treaty of Rome- European Economic community (EEC) i.e. Common market

1993 - Maastricht Treaty. European union (Eli) fully established by 12 members. It adopted new reforms like.

  • Common Foreign Policy.
  • Policy of single currency.
  • Common policy - EU.

1999 - Single currency (euro)

Robert Schuman proposing the Coal and Steel Community on 9 May 1950,

The 1957 Rome Treaty created the European Economic Community.

After World War II, moves towards European integration were seen by many as an escape from the extreme forms of nationalism which had devastated the continent. The very first attempt to unite Europeans was the creation of European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC) in 1952 which, while having, the modest aim of centralized control of the previously national coal and steel illustration of its member states, was declared to be "a first step in the federation of Europe".. The founding members of the Community were France and West Germany.

In 1957, these six countries signed the Treaties of Rome, which extended the earlier cooperation within the European Coal and Steel Community and created the European Economic Community, (EEC) establishing a customs union and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom) for cooperation in developing nuclear energy. In 1967 the Merger of above institutions created a single set of institutions for the three communities, known as the European Communities (EC), although commonly just as the European Community.

In 1973, the Communities enlarged to include Denmark, Ireland, and the United Kingdom, In 1985, the Schengen Agreement led the way toward the creation of o^ borders without passport controls between most member states and Home nun member states. In 1986, the European flag began to be used by the Community and the Single European Act was signed.

In 1990s, after the fall of Soviet union the former East Germany became part of the community as part of a newly United Germany with enlargement towards Eastern and central Europe were allowed to join. The European Union was formally established when the Maastricht treaty can into force on 1st November 1993, in 2002 Euro notes and coins replaced national currencies in 12 of the member states. Science then the Eurozone has increased encompass sixteen countries.

On 1st December 2009 the Lisbon Treaty entered into force after a protracted controversial birth. This reformed many aspects of the FU but in particular create a permanent president of the European council. The Union’s membership has grown from the original six founding states Belgium, France(then west) Germany, Italy, Luxembourg and the Netherlands, to present day 27 by successive enlargement as countries accede to the treaties by doing so. The EU’s member states cover an area of 4,422,773 square kilometers.

Foreign relations:

Steps for a more wide ranging coordination in foreign relations began in 1970. Common Foreign and Security Policy Policy (CFSP) by the Maastricht Treaty. The aims of the CFSP are to promote both the EU's own interests and those of the international community as a whole, including the furtherance of international co¬operation, respect for human rights, democracy, and the rule of law. The CFSP requires unanimity among the member states on the appropriate policy to follow on any particular issue.

Besides the emerging international policy of the European Union, the international influence of the EU is also felt through enlargement This influence on the internal affairs of other countries b generally referred to as "soft power", as opposed to military "hard power".

In the UN as an observer and working together, the EU has gained influence tn areas such as aid due to its large contributions in that field. In the GS, the 11 has rights of membership besides chairing/hosting summit meetings and is represented at meetings by the presidents of the Commission and the Council.

In the world Trade Organisation (WTO), where all 27 member states are represented The European Union does not have one unified military. The predecessors of the European Union were not devised as a strong military alliance because NATO was largely seen as appropriate and sufficient for defense purposes. Twenty-one El, members are members of NATO while the remaining member states follow policies of neutrality.

EU forces have been deployed on peacekeeping missions from Africa to the former Yugoslavia and the Middle East. In an EU consisting of 27 members, substantial security and defense cooperation is increasingly relying on .great power cooperation.

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Humanitarian Aid:

Collectively, the EU is the largest contributor of foreign aid in the world.

The EU provides humanitarian aid to developing countries. Counting the EU's own contributions and those of its member states together, the EU is the largest aid donor in Over the years the EU has established a strong relationship with the UN. Co¬operation takes place on a broad range of areas: development, addressing climate.

change, peace building in conflict ridden countries, humanitarian assistance in crises, fighting corruption and crime, global health concerns such as AID/HIV and labour issues and culture. The EU and its Member state also play a crucial role as the major contributor to the UN system. Co-operation financial support of the policy dialogue, but also goes further by genera UN programs and projects.

Economy:

Since its origin, the EU has established a single economic market across the territory of all its members. Currently, a single currency is in use between the 16 members of the eurozone. If considered as a single economy, the EU generated and estimated nominal gross domestic product (GDP) of US$16.45 in 2009, to over 21% of the world's total economic output which makes it the largest economy in the world and the second largest trade block.

It is also the largest exporter, and largest importer of goods and services, and the biggest trading partner to several large countries such as China and India. 161 of the top 500 largest corporations measured by revenue (Fortune Global 500 in 20I0J have their headquarters in the EU. There is a great deal of variance for annual per capita income within individual EC states, these range from US$7,000 to US$69,000.

Single market (Free/ common market):

The signing of the Maastricht Treaty in 1992 established the single market. It ensures the free movement of goods, capital, people and services! Two of the original core objectives of the European Economic Community development of a common market, subsequently renamed the single market and a customs union between its member states. The single involves the free circulation of goods, capital, people and services within the EU.

And the customs union involves the application of a common external traffic on all goods entering the market. Once goods have been admitted into the market they can not be subjected to customs duties, discriminators taxes or import quotas as they travel, the free movement of capital is unique insofar as it is granted equally to non member states.

The free movement of persons means citizens can move free between member states to live, work, study or retire mother country. This required the lowering of administrative formalities and recognition of professional qualifications of other states.

The free movement of services and of establishment allows self-employed persons to move between member .tales in order to provide services on a temporary or permanent basis.

Monetary union (Common currency):

The creation of a European single currency became an official objects of the EU . member states were legally bound to Mart the monetary union no later than I January 1999. 16 EU countries have introduced the euro as their sole currency.

It is also intended as a political symbol of integration and stimulus for more. Since its launch the euro has become the second reserve currency in the world with a quarter of foreign exchanges reserves being in euro.

The Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is one of the oldest policies of the European Community, and was one of its core aims. The policy has the objectives of increasing "agricultural production, providing certainty in food supplies, ensuring a high quality of life for farmers, stablising markets, and ensuring reasonable prices for consumers.

Environment:

The EU is the most ambitious player and self-proclaimed leader in international climate policy. At the 2007 United nations climate change conference dealing with the successor to the Kyoto protocol the EU has proposed at 50% cut in greenhouse gases by 2050.

Challenges:

  1. Identity crisis.
  2. 27countries-mega European consensus becomes difficult
  3. Economic recession and debt cries in various countries.
  4. Economic imbalance between Western and Eastern Europe, problem of immigration & cheap labor threatening remaing Europeans.
  5. Conflict over international issues & US interference
  6. Rivalry between France & UK.
  7. Turkey's membership

Conclusion:

EU has changed the destiny of post-war Europe from a devastated place to the richest & most prosperous region in the world. Today it has become a genuine global entity that reaches out to its southern and eastern neighbors, meets its responsibilities in the world and leads the way on the environment and human rights. Because of its chain of successes EU has become a role model for all the other regional organizations of the world.



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