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United Nation

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The second world war has brought misery to all worlds. Millions of people died, property, hunger, disease, ignorance, escalating of war threatened the very existence of mankind. The conscience of man was aroused and he cried.

Introduction:

Establish On: Oct 24, 1945.

The Name: United Nations was devised by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of USA.

Original Members: 51

Current Members: 192

Headquarter: International Territory in Manhattan New York.

Official Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish.

Main Organs: Six

Un Charter Contains 19 Chapters.

111 Articles.

Leader: Sectary General Ban Ki Moon (South Korea)

Origin:

The second world war has brought misery to all worlds. Millions of people died, property, hunger, disease, ignorance, escalating of war threatened the very existence of mankind. The conscience of man was aroused and he cried.

“Let there be an end to war. Let there be peace and good will on earth. Let man live with his fellow man as brother.”

The big powers of the worlds began to give generous through to the problem of pace with this end in view. The FM’s USA, UK, USSR, and china met at Moscow in last week of oct 1943, and proposed to work for establishment of an international organization in order to prevent war and bring peace in world. To this effect they issued a joint communiqué on Nov 1, 1943 known as “the Moscow Declaration”. The representative of these states met again at Washington in sept to oct 1944, these talks came to be known as “ DUMBARATION – AOKS TALKS.”

On Oct 7, 1944 the proposed frame work of UN was tentatively published. These proposals were further discussed at YALTA CONFERENCE in Febl945. Finally, the draft was signed at San Francisco on June 26, 1945. finally, UNO came into being on Oct 24, 1945.

Aims of United Nations:

Fundamental aims of UNO are as follows.

  1. To maintain and preserve international peace and security.
  2. To develop friendly relations and harmony among countries.
  3. To grant equal rights & self-determination to all countries.
  4. To solve social, economic, cultural and humanitarian problems through international co-operation.
  5. To promote respect for human rights dignity & freedom.

These objectives envisage a better and peace full life to people & harmony with one another, maintain international peace & security.

Critical Analysis of United Nations:

Achievements of United Nations:

Maintenance of International Peace & Security.

The united nations has been instrumental in setting numerous controversies that could have been a potential danger to world peace and security.

  1. The Korean Crisis of 1950.
  2. UN peacekeeping mission in Cyprus.
  3. Un interim force was sent to confirm with drawl of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon and to help Lebanon government in restoring effective authority in 1978.
  4. UN Iraq-Kuwait observation mission was sent to monitor Iraq-Kuwait border in 1991.
  5. UN observation mission to Elsalvador in May 1991.
  6. UN Angola verification mission in 1991 to conduct elections.

Social Accomplishments:

UN is equally alive to its responsibilities of promotion of conditions that foster better economic, cultural social and humanitarian conditions.

UNICEF has provided food, clothing and help to needy children and mothers in devastated countries.

WHO provide necessary advisory and technical assistance to various countries to eradicate disease like Malaysia, T13, Polio, and small pox, Lemposy, etc?

UN has made frantic efforts to eradicate illiteracy, improve standards of education.

UN has sought to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom. It adopted a Universal Declaration of Human Rights and convention on Genocide. UN has severely criticized human rights abuses committed by USA in Guantinamo Bay and Abu Garib Prison.

It has held conventions on political rights of Women, constituted a commission on the status of Women and achieved equally for Women in employment, services & exercise of rights.

Economic Achievements:

Its role in economic field has been remarkable. It focused on improving the standard of living, providing full employment and creation of conditions conductive to economic development. The UN has paid special attention to development of underdeveloped countries by rendering technical assistance training and making available advance knowledge of developed countries for solution of problems of these countries. Provided powerful financial instruments like IMF, world bank that can detect arrest and turn around economic crisis in a member state that might have serious spill over effects else where especially on vaneurable neighbors.

WIO has been working tor reduction of trade barriers and has provided a platform for dialogue, consultation and negotiations for reduction of trade barriers and providing equal treatment to developing and under developed countries.

The second world war has brought misery to all worlds. Millions of people died, property, hunger, disease, ignorance, escalating of war threatened the very existence of mankind. The conscience of man was aroused and he cried.

Introduction:

Establish On: Oct 24, 1945.

The Name: United Nations was devised by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt of USA.

Original Members: 51

Current Members: 192

Headquarter: International Territory in Manhattan New York.

Official Languages: Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish.

Main Organs: Six

Un Charter Contains 19 Chapters.

111 Articles.

Leader: Sectary General Ban Ki Moon (South Korea)

Origin:

The second world war has brought misery to all worlds. Millions of people died, property, hunger, disease, ignorance, escalating of war threatened the very existence of mankind. The conscience of man was aroused and he cried.

“Let there be an end to war. Let there be peace and good will on earth. Let man live with his fellow man as brother.”

The big powers of the worlds began to give generous through to the problem of pace with this end in view. The FM’s USA, UK, USSR, and china met at Moscow in last week of oct 1943, and proposed to work for establishment of an international organization in order to prevent war and bring peace in world. To this effect they issued a joint communiqué on Nov 1, 1943 known as “the Moscow Declaration”. The representative of these states met again at Washington in sept to oct 1944, these talks came to be known as “ DUMBARATION – AOKS TALKS.”

On Oct 7, 1944 the proposed frame work of UN was tentatively published. These proposals were further discussed at YALTA CONFERENCE in Febl945. Finally, the draft was signed at San Francisco on June 26, 1945. finally, UNO came into being on Oct 24, 1945.

Aims of United Nations:

Fundamental aims of UNO are as follows.

  1. To maintain and preserve international peace and security.
  2. To develop friendly relations and harmony among countries.
  3. To grant equal rights & self-determination to all countries.
  4. To solve social, economic, cultural and humanitarian problems through international co-operation.
  5. To promote respect for human rights dignity & freedom.

These objectives envisage a better and peace full life to people & harmony with one another, maintain international peace & security.

Critical Analysis of United Nations:

Achievements of United Nations:

Maintenance of International Peace & Security.

The united nations has been instrumental in setting numerous controversies that could have been a potential danger to world peace and security.

  1. The Korean Crisis of 1950.
  2. UN peacekeeping mission in Cyprus.
  3. Un interim force was sent to confirm with drawl of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon and to help Lebanon government in restoring effective authority in 1978.
  4. UN Iraq-Kuwait observation mission was sent to monitor Iraq-Kuwait border in 1991.
  5. UN observation mission to Elsalvador in May 1991.
  6. UN Angola verification mission in 1991 to conduct elections.

Social Accomplishments:

UN is equally alive to its responsibilities of promotion of conditions that foster better economic, cultural social and humanitarian conditions.

UNICEF has provided food, clothing and help to needy children and mothers in devastated countries.

WHO provide necessary advisory and technical assistance to various countries to eradicate disease like Malaysia, T13, Polio, and small pox, Lemposy, etc?

UN has made frantic efforts to eradicate illiteracy, improve standards of education.

UN has sought to promote respect for human rights and fundamental freedom. It adopted a Universal Declaration of Human Rights and convention on Genocide. UN has severely criticized human rights abuses committed by USA in Guantinamo Bay and Abu Garib Prison.

It has held conventions on political rights of Women, constituted a commission on the status of Women and achieved equally for Women in employment, services & exercise of rights.

Economic Achievements:

Its role in economic field has been remarkable. It focused on improving the standard of living, providing full employment and creation of conditions conductive to economic development. The UN has paid special attention to development of underdeveloped countries by rendering technical assistance training and making available advance knowledge of developed countries for solution of problems of these countries. Provided powerful financial instruments like IMF, world bank that can detect arrest and turn around economic crisis in a member state that might have serious spill over effects else where especially on vaneurable neighbors.

WIO has been working tor reduction of trade barriers and has provided a platform for dialogue, consultation and negotiations for reduction of trade barriers and providing equal treatment to developing and under developed countries.

More On Critical Analysis of UN

Set Backs:

In Cold War Period:

Bickering B/W Two Super Powers:

During the cold w ar period UN was seen to be one of the main arenas of the clash of ideologies and political confrontation between two hostile blocks.

Korean War (1950- 1953):

As a result of this war there was death of Four million People. UN was helpless to stop out breach of war.

Vietnam War (1963-1974-75):

Super power exploited the UN clause of non-interference in domestic troubles.

Algeria

It was a French colony. In 1961 it was struggling to gain independence. When UN tried to intervene, it was warned by France that Algerian problem was a domestic problem.

Chechnya:

Again in Chechnya UN was helpless because Russia announced that it was an internal problem.

Exploitation of Veto Power:

Veto power used to further interests of super powers and protect their own interest and also to provide diplomatic cover, to the allies.

Russia / Soviet Union:

In early days of UN Mr.Molotox os USS used veto, so many times that he was known as MR. Veto, soviet union was responsible for half of all the veto’s ever cart. 79 veot’s were used in first 10 years. molotox regularly rejected bids fo new membership because of US refused to admit the soviet republics since, collapse of soviet union, Kenya has used used its veo power sparingly.

Post Cold War Period:

The end of cold war provided an opportunity to revert to concept of coueetive security and acceptance of UN as an instrument of international legality. But what actually happened was further erosion of UN’s credibility and authority.

Uni Polarity:

The world turned unipolar after the soviet disintegration in 1991. Now UN is helpless before the aggressive designs of sole super power America, first cold war period, USSR at least kept a check on USA but now America is free to unleash it reign of terror.

UN is no longer the sole meaningful authority on issues of global relevance. Washington not newyork is the focus of world’s attention for actual decision making.

Pro Israel Policy of USA:

The US first used the veto power in 1970, regarding a crisis in Rhodesia, and Ist issued a lone veto in 1972, to prevent a resolution censuring Israel. Since that time it has become. By far the most frequent user of the veto, mainly against resolution criticizing Israel. This has allowed Israel to continue state terrorism against Palestinians.

Post 9/11:

9/11 attacks on United States has provided it with an excuse to carry out any step it deemed fit to guarantee its security and for it, it did not hesitate to by pass the UN authority.

US declared pre-emption against any country that violated its Prestige, power & Position.

  1. On US pressure a resolution was passed by Security Council to attack on Afghanistan.
  2. Security Council did not allowed invasion of Iraq in 2003, as UN inspectors could not find any evidence of weapons of destruction. America rejected UNSC decision with contempt and went ahead and attacked Iraq. Now the country is on verge of truncation and ethnic strife and terrorism is on the rise.
  3. America is making every possible effort to mobilize world community against IRAN over its nuclear program. This is despite the fact that IRAN is a signatory of CTBT that allows its members to pursue nuclear program for peaceful purpose.
  4. The stubborn attitude of USA is the main reason that the world community has not been able to produce an alternative to KYOTO Protocol in the BALI Conference in Indonesia. America has refused to cut its C02 emission although it is .the leading procedure of green house gases and UN is helpless to enforce its decision on America.
  5. United Nations Reforms:

    Why Reforms Are Needed:

    The UN forces its moment of truth. The world has changed drastically since 1945. UN itself has expanded manifolds in its membership and structure. Its ubiquitous role now extends to virtually every aspect of human activity and life with the growing complexity & magnitude of global challenges including recurrent threats to international peace & security the UN needs radical changes in its approach and capacity to manage these challenges.

    Reforms are required mainly for following reasons.

    Abuse of VETO Power:

    The power of veto is used by the P-5 to secure their own interests and is a big hurdle to make balanced political decisions.

    1. In early days of UN, the soviet Union minister of foreign affairs, Vyacheslav Molotov said no so many times that he was known as “MR.Veto”. 79 veto’s were used by USSR in First 10 years.
    2. United States has repeatedly used veto to present resolutions against Israel.
    Changed GEO- Politics of World:

    Due to global changes that have taken politically and economically since creation of UN in apparent over whether the five permanent members of UNSC remain the best member states to hold Veto Power.

    In 1945, there was only one nuclear power USA in 1944 USSR went nuclear in 1949. Now there are at least 8 nuclear powers and many more are able to attain it.

    Absence / Lack of Jurisdiction to Implement its Decisions:
    1. UN is early dependent on the sweet will of its member states to implement its decisions.
    2. The UN has no standing army of Its own. The UN failed in KOSOVO and it was NATO that stopped the killing of ethnic Albanians.
    3. In Sierra Lone, the British soldiers came to the help of UN mission from collapsing in 2000.
    4. It shows that UN is suitable only for soft peace keeping and "observer'1 missions with cooperation from warring sides.
    Deficient Charter:

    There has been frequent exploitation of UN clause of non-interference in domestic trouble e.g. when UN tried to intervence in Algeria in 1961 it was threatened by France that Algerian problems was its domestic problem (Algeria was a French colony)

    Emergence of Trans National Issues:

    United Nations is now faced by issues of trans national nature that were absent when it was created in 1945.

    • Global Warming.
    • Terrorism.
    • Spread of Aids.
    • Proliferation of WMD.

    Changes are required in UN to enable it to effectively deal with such issues.

    Financial Dependence:

    United nations is highly dependent financially on North (Developed Countries) While South ( poor / developing countries) pay only 0-01% of its budget. The rich north led by US dominates the UNSC that has all the power to make binding resolutions and is therefore bend on exploiting the poor south.

    Rise of Regional Organization:

    The rise of powerful regional organizations has greatly undermined the United Nations.

    Although United Nations did not allowed US to attach Iraq, the USA by paned UN and attached with the help of the "Coalition of writhing" consisting of NATO countries. These regional organizations like EU, ASEAN etc. protect the interests of their blocks and can act independence of UNO.

    Corruption Scandal Undermined the Legitimacy of UNO:

    The $ 64 billion oil for food scandal against Kofi Anan and reports of UN peace keepers Sexually abusing the people they had been sent to protect they has been sent to protect has greatly undermined the credibility of UN.

    Reforms of United Nations (Proposed):

    In the recent years there have been many calls for reform of United Nations. However there is little consensus on the type of reforms. The range of opinion extends from those who want to eliminate UN entirely to those who want UN to play a greater and more effective role in world affairs. Former UN secretary general Kofi hanan started an official reform program in 1997.

    These reforms included.

    Security Council Reforms:

    Several proposal have been put forward for security council reforms and are related to the no of permanent and Non permanent member and use of veto power.

    Reforms Regarding Security Council Membership:
    "In the Larger Freedom" (By Kofi Annan)

    Kofi Annan proposed expansion of council membership to 24 0n March 21, 2005 in a plan referred to as "In Larger Freedom".

    Annan gave two opinions referred to as Plan A and Plan B.

    Plan A: (G-4) india, Germany, japan and Brazil. It proposes creation of 6 new permanent members and three non-permanent members creating a total of 24 seats in the Security Council.

    Plan B: (UFC) It calls for creating eight new seats in new class of members who would serve for four years, subject to renewal plus one non -permanent seat, also for a total of 24 seats.

    "Uniting for Consensus" (By the Coffee Club):

    This plan was put forward by five UN member countries namely.

    1. Argentina.
    2. Italy.


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