Introduction & Overview Of The Conflict
The Israeli-Palestinian conflict is the ongoing dispute between Israelis and Palestinians The conflict is wide-ranging, and the term is also used in reference to the earlier phases of the same conflic.
Between Jewish, and the Arab population living in Palestine under Ottoman or British rule. It forms part of the wider, and generally earlier, Arab-Israeli conflict.. The violence resulting from the conflict has prompted international actions, as well as other security and human rights concerns, both within and between both sides, and internationally.
Many attempts have been made to broker a two-state solution, which would entail the creation of an independent Palestinian state alongside an independent Jewish state or next to the State of Israel (after Israel's establishment in 1948) However, there are significant areas of disagreement over the shape of any final agreement.
Within Israeli and Palestinian society, the conflict generates a wide variety of views and opinions. This highlights the deep divisions which exist not only between Israelis and Palestinians, but also within each society. A hallmark of the conflict has been the level of violence witnessed for virtually its entire duration. Fighting has been conducted by regular armies, paramilitary groups, terror cells and individuals. Casualties have not been restricted to the military, with a large number of fatalities in civilian population on both sides.
There are prominent international actors involved in the conflict. The two parties engaged in direct negotiation (2010) are the Israeli government, currently led by Benjamin Netanyahu, and the Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO), currently headed by Mahmoud Abbas. The official negotiations are mediated by an international contingent known as the Quartet on the Middle East (the Quartet) represented by a special envoy that consists of the United States, Russia, the European Union, and the United Nations.
The Arab League is another important actor, which has proposed an alternative peace plan. Egypt, a founding member of the Arab League, has historically been a key participant. Since 2003, the Palestinian side has been fractured by conflict between the two major factions: Fatah, the traditionally dominant party, and its later electoral challenger, Hamas. Following Hamas' seizure of power in the Gara Strip in June 2007.
The territory controlled by the Palestinian National Authority (the Palestinian interim government) is split between Fatah in the West Bank, and Hamas in the Gaza Strip. The division of governance between the parties has effectively resulted in the collapse of bipartisan governance of the Palestinian National Authority (PA).
Periods of the conflict:
On this historical timeline, the Israeli-Palestine conflict has had seven distinct phases.
- Late 19th century-1917: the period of the Ottoman Empire Rule in Palestine, during that period, the disputes were on the basis of religious background and on national background.
- 1917-1948: the period of the British Mandate of Palestine, in which both parties were under British Rule and under a single political entity. During this period significant Jewish immigration altered the demographic balance.
- 1948-1967: the period between the declaration of the state of Israel by UN partition plan in 1948and six day war in 1967 in which the parties resided thress separate political entities. The state of Israel, the Gaza strip which was controlled by Egypt and the west bank which was annexed to Jordan.
- 1967-1993: the period between the six day war in 1967 (Israel captured all Palestinian areas in west bank and Gaza) and the Oslo Accords (1993), in which the conflicted parties reside in the areas addressed by the UN Partition Plan that were under the control of the state Israel.
- 1993-2000: The period between the Oslo accords and the second intifada (2000) in which Israel existed alongside the semi-sovereign political autonomy, the Palestinian in 1987,
- 2000-2005: the period between the beginning of the school intifada until 2000 in which Israel returned to perform arresting operations in Area A zones in the West Bank.
- 2005-Present: the period after Israel’s unilateral withdrawal from the Gaza state. The withdrawal led to the strengthening of Hamas, which in 2006 won an election, then took control over Gaza Strip.
Oslo Accords (1993):
In 1993, Israeli officials led by Yizhak Rabin and Palestine leaders from the Palestine Liberation Organization (i-e PLO established in 1964) led by Yasser Arafat strove to find a peaceful solution through what became known as the Oslo peace process. A crucial milestone in this process was Arafat recognized Israel’s right to exist, in 1993 the Oslo accords were finalized as a framework for future Israeli-Palestinian relations.
The cruse of the Oslo agreement was that Israel would gradually “surrender” control of the Palestinian territories over to the Palestinians in exchange for peace. The Oslo process was delicate and could not be implement in true spirit due to vision of the terms of both sides.
Quartet peace plan ( Bush road map)
one peace proposal, presented by the Quartet of the European Union, Russia, the United Nations and the United States in 2002, was the Road Map for Peace. This plan did not attempt to resolve difficult questions such as the fate of Jerusalem or Israeli settlements, but left that to be negotiated in later phases of the process.
Israel did not accept the proposal as written but called out 14 "reservations" or changes before they would accept it, which were unacceptable to the Palestinian leadership. The proposal never made it beyond the first phase, which called for a halt to Israeli settlement construction and a halt to Israeli and Palestinian violence, none of which was achieved.
It is important to note that neither side holds a single position. Both the Israeli and the Palestinian sides include both moderate and extremist bodies \ which complicate the peace settlement. Many Palestinians nowadays believe that Israel is not really interested in reaching an arrangement, but rather interested in continuing to control the entire territory of West Bank & Gaza. As proof of their claims, they point to the expansion of the Jewish settlements in these areas which belonged to Arab countries.
Also Israeli right-wing leaders and religious leaders have expressed their support in a Greater Israel and permanen annexation of these areas. On the other hand, many Israelis nowadays believe that the Palestinians' true intentions are to conquer the Palestine region entirely. As a proof to their claims, they note the rise of the Hamas (2006), which has called for the takeover of all parts of Israel & even claiming to wipe out the state of Israel from the map of world. Anyway there are various core issues between both Israelis and Palestinians on which they disagree.
The border of Jerusalem is a particularly delicate issue, with each side asserting claims over this city. The three largest Abrahamic religions—Judaism, Christianity, and Islam— include Jerusalem as an important setting for their religious and historical narratives. Israel asserts that the city should not be divided and should remain unified within Israel's political control.
Palestinians claim at least the parts of the city which were not part of Israel prior to June 1967. In 1980, Israel issued a new law stating, "Jerusalem, complete and united, is the capital of Israel." Israel expresses concern over the security of its residents if neighborhoods of Jerusalem are placed under Palestinian control. Jerusalem has been a prime target for attacks by militant groups against civilian targets since 1967. Palestinians have gave concerns regarding the welfare of Christian and Muslim holy places under Israeli control.
Palestinian Refugees Of The 1948 War
Palestinians lost both their homes and means of livelihood as a result of the 1948. The number of Palestine who fled or were expelled from Israel following its creation we estimated at 711,000 in 1949 and 4.6 million people in 2009. One third of the refugee live in recognized refugee camps in Jordan, Lebanon Syria the west bank and Gaza strip. The remainder live in and around the cities and towns of these host countries. The Israeli Law of return that grants citizenship to any jew from anywhere in the world is viewed by some as discrimination towards Palestinians that cannot apply for such citizenship nor return to the territory from which they were displaced or left.
The strongest legal basis on the issue are UN resolution 194,3236 &242, reaffirming the inalienable right of the Palestinian to return to their homes and property from which they have been displaced and uprooted and calls for their return.
Israeli Settlements In The West Bank, Jerusalem and Gaza Strip
In the years following the six-day war (1967 war)and especially in the 1990s during the peace process Israel re-established communities destroyed in 1929 as 1948 as well as established numerous new settlements in the west bank.these settlements are now home to about 350,000 people. Most of the settlements are in the western parts of the west bank, while others are deep into Palestinian territory, overlooking Palestinian cities. These settlements have been the site of much intercommunicated conflict.
As of 2006 267 163 Israelis lived within the West Bank and East Jerusalem. The establishment and expansion of these settlements in the West Bank and (at the time) the Gaza Strip have been described as violations of the fourth Geneva Convention by the ]| Security Council in several resolutions. These settlements also divert resources needed t Palestinian towns, such as arable land, water, and other resources; and, that settlements reduce Palestinians' ability to travel freely via local roads, owing to security considerations.
In 2005, Israel's unilateral disengagement plan, a proposal put forward by Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, was enacted. All residents of Jewish settlements in the Gaza strip were evacuated, and all residential buildings were demolished. Israel’s position that it needs to retain some west bank land and settlements as a buffer in case of future aggression and Israel’s position that some settlements are legitimate as they look shape when there was no operative diplomatic arrangement and thus they did not violate any agreement.
The current Obama administration views a complete freeze of construction in settlements on the West Bank as a critical step toward peace. In May and June 2009, President Barack Obama said "The United States does not accept the legitimacy of continued Israeli settlements," and the Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton stated that the President "wants to see a stop to settlements — not some settlements, not outposts, not 'natural growth' exceptions."
Israeli Security Concerns
Throughout the conflict, Palestinian political violence has been a concern for Israelis. Israel refer to the violence against Israeli civilians and military forces by Palestinian militants as terrorism. The most prominent Islamist groups, such as Hamas, view the Israeli-Palestinian conflict as a religious jihad.
Suicide bombing is a used as tactic among Palestinian organization^ like 1 lamas. Islamic Jihad, and the Al-Aqsa Martyrs Brigade. In Israel, Palestinian suicide bombers have targeted civilian buses, restaurants, shopping malls, hotels and marketplaces.
Since 2001, the threat of Qassam rockets fired from the Palestinian Territories into Israel is also of great concern for Israeli defense officials. In 2006—the year following Israel's disengagement from the Gaza Strip—the Israeli government recorded 1,726 such launches, more than four times the total rockets fired in 2005. As of January 2009, over 8,600 rockets had been launched causing widespread psychological trauma and disruption of daily life.
In the past, Israel has demanded control over border crossings between the Palestinian territories and Jordan and Egypt, and the right to set the import and export controls, asserting that Israel and the Palestinian territories are a single economic space.
Palestinians insist on contiguous territory which will in turn rupture the existing territorial contiguity of Israel. In the interim agreements reached as part of the Oslo Accords, the Palestinian Authority has received control over cities (Area A) while the surrounding countryside has been placed under Israeli security and Palestinian civil administration (Area B) or complete Israeli control (Area C).
Israel has built additional highways to allow Israelis to traverse the area without entering Palestinian cities. The initial areas under Palestinian Authority control are diverse and non-contiguous. According to Palestinians, the separated areas make it impossible to create a viable nation and fails to address Palestinian security needs.
In the Middle East, water resources arc of great political concern. Since Israel receives much of its water from two large underground aquifers which continue under the green line, the use of this water has been contentious in the Israeli Palestinian conflict. Since some of the wells used to draw this water lie within the Palestinian Authority areas.
The Oslo peace process was based upon Israel ceding authority to the Palestinians to turn their own political and economic affairs, in return it was agreed that Palestinians would promote peaceful co-existence renounce violence and promote recognition of Israel among their own people. Despite Yasir Arafat’s official renunciation of terrorism and recognition of Israel.
Some Palestinian groups continue to participate and advocate some Palestinian groups, notably Fatah, the political party founded by PLO leaders, claims are willing to foster co-existence if Palestinians are steadily given more political right, and autonomy. In 2006, Hamas won a majority in the Palestinian Legislative Council While Hamas has openly stated in the past that it completely opposed Israel's right to exist, and its charter states this.
In December 2009, the Israeli government ordered a 10-month lull in permits for new settlement homes in the West Bank. The restrictions, which Israeli politician and media have referred to as a "freeze", do not apply to East Jerusalem the Israel government said the move was aimed at restarting peace talks, but Palestinian officials said it was insufficient. Palestinian officials have refused to rejoin peace talks unless a total building halt is imposed, including in east Jerusalem.
The announcement followed calls by the US government for a total freeze in settlement building. The US government, the European union, Russia and the UN have criticized Israel’s plans to continue building in East Jerusalem. However bimonthly talks have started between natanyahu & Mahmud Abbas in sept 2010, which is a good omen.
Palestinians are suffering for the last 60 years. They are living in shabby conditions & under the shadow of guns. Their land was forcibly partitioned & ultimately the> were completely up-rooted from their legitimate land. Great injustice has been committed on the part of Western powers & Israel. The world community, therefore needs to give attention to their problem.
Their territories must be returned & all the core issues be solved according to International law & UN resolutions. At the same-time, both the Palestinians & Jews must also realize that peaceful coexistence/ 2 state solutions is the most viable option for them & they should seriously work accordingly forgetting their internal conflict & differences.