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Communication | Types & Process of Communication


The word ‘communication’ originates from Latin word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’. Communication can be defined in a number of ways;


The word ‘communication’ originates from Latin word ‘communis’ which means ‘common’. Communication can be defined in a number of ways;

In broadest sense communication includes all methods of conveying any kind of thought or feeling to other people or of receiving expressions of thought or feeling from others. (Howard H. Dean)


The word communication includes all the procedures by which one mind may affect another (Claud Shanon & W.Weaver).


Process by which information is exchanged between individuals through a common system of symbols, signs or behaviors is called communication.


Communication is a two-way process of giving and receiving information through any number of channels i.e. it is a process of transmitting and receiving messages. Communication is a reciprocal process. It is a two way process of exchanging ideas or information. It is considered effective when it achieves the desired response from the receiver. It is an important factor in achieving personal satisfaction and success. Through effective communication one becomes more persuasive and has enhanced relationships with those with whom one interacts in both business & social conversation. It is one of the most important aspects of business leadership.

Process of Communication:

The most common elements found in almost every communication are Sender, Receiver, Message, Medium, Noise and Feedback.

The sender initiates the communication. The sender is a person (speaking, writing, drawing, gesturing) or an organization (newspaper, publishing house, television channel or a motion picture) which has a need or desire to convey an idea or concept to others. The receiver is the individual/group (like lecture audience or crowd) to whom the message is sent. The sender encodes the idea i.e. he/she selects proper words and body language to convey his/her idea. The message is the outcome of the encoding and it can be in the form of writing, sound waves, and physical moves by using your body language or any other physical movement in the form of signs or symbols. Broadly speaking, it can be in the form of verbal or non-verbal communication.

communication process

The message is sent through a medium or channel, which is the carrier of communication. The medium can be a face-to-face conversation, radio, TV Channel, telephone call, e-mail, or written report. The receiver decodes the received message into meaningful information. Compatibility of message with some of the experience of receiver is called decoding. Noise is anything that distorts the message. Different perceptions of the message, language barriers, physical or social barriers are examples of noise.

Finally, feedback occurs when the receiver responds to the sender's message and returns the message to the sender. Feedback helps the sender to adjust his message according to the needs of receiving end. It may contain evaluative and corrective measures. Feedback allows the sender to determine whether the message has been received and understood.

Types of Communication:

On the basis of activity, communication can be of two types i.e. verbal and non-verbal whereas keeping in view the social aspects, there are six types of communication i.e. interpersonal, intrapersonal, extrapersonal, micro group, Large Group , and Mass Communication. They are briefly explained as follows:

Verbal Communication:

Communication by means of language i.e. words. It usually involves immediate feedback, shorter sentences, focuses on interpersonal relations as it is conversational and prompt actions by speaker. E.g. a conversation between representatives of political parties in talk shows.

Non-Verbal Communication:

Conveying the message from one person to another through the use of non-word symbols is called non-verbal communication .It has three parts; Kinesics-the body language which includes facial expression, eye contact, gestures and touch; Proxemics - related to social distances and relationships i.e; cultural background, social status, gender and family background which can have strong effects while communicating with other people; Paralinguage - the way in which something is said, such as tone or inflection.

Intra-Personal Communication:

When a person talks to himself or considers his personal thoughts, this is known as intrapersonal communication. It results due to the coordination f various senses with the brain, thinking and planning etc. It is like self reflection n introvert people.

Inter-Personal Communication:

It is conveying messages from one person to another i.e. a conversation between two people.

Extra-Personal Communication:

It is the communication between man and environment i.e. man’s interaction with environment like interaction with plants and animals.

Micro Communication:

It is a sort of expansion of inter-personal communication. It includes group discussion, class room discussions, discussions on forums etc. This type of communication is stable over time and is recurrent. Its main purpose is creating awareness and sharing values.

Large Group Communication:

A type of communication in which there is a large number or huge crowd usually seen in political gatherings, music concerts or public rallies etc is called large group communication. This is done mostly with the help of microphone. Although it includes large audience but still it is restricted, temporary and rare. They are, most of the times, emotional in nature.

Mass Communication:

This type of communication is done through mass media i.e. newspapers, television, radio, film etc. This is the most important, effective and advanced form of communication. It has dispersed audience and changes it boundaries with time.

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