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Mass Communication | Magazine Journalism

Journalism
Typography

Communication is the process of sharing our ideas, thoughts and feelings with other people and having those ideas, thoughts, and feelings understood by the people we are talking with. When we communicate we speak, listen, and observe. The way we communicate is a learned style. As children we learn from watching our parents and others who communicate effectively, learning new skills, and participating skills.

Mass Communication

Introduction

Communication is the process of sharing our ideas, thoughts and feelings with other people and having those ideas, thoughts, and feelings understood by the people we are talking with. When we communicate we speak, listen, and observe. The way we communicate is a learned style. As children we learn from watching our parents and others who communicate effectively, learning new skills, and participating skills.

Mass communication is a multi-stage process by which an organization using technical devices or intermediate transmitters sends messages widely and rapidly to large, scattered, heterogeneous audience. The audience is known to sender and has limited opportunity to provide feedback. Mass communication is made through mechanics or media involved. this is dissemination of ideas and thought but through mass media, media that targets large population.

Communication Process

  1. Sender (encode): Encodes message and send to other person.
  2. Channel:The message passes through a medium.
  3. Moise:Disturbance created during communication process
  4. Message Receiver (decoder):Person who receives message
  5. Feedback:Reaction of receiver on getting message from sender

Means of Mass Communication

  1. Radio
  2. Books
  3. Posters
  4. Internet
  5. Pamphlets
  6. Newspaper
  7. Television
  8. SMS-News Alert
  9. Mobile Internet
  10. Cyber Journalism
  11. Neon Sign Board

Barriers Of Communication

The message or the idea which is to be conveyed also must be in a language which is colloquial and understandable. because if the message is misinterpreted communication would not be effective.

An effective communication barrier is one of the problems faced by many organizations. many social psychologists opine that there is 50 % to 70 % loss of meaning while conveying the message from a sender to a receiver. they estimate there are four basic places where communication could be interpreted wrongly. a few barriers of effective communication in an organization are given below.

Physical Barriers

One of the major barriers of communication in a workplace is the physically separated from other. other distractions that could cause a physical barrier in an organization are the environment, background noise.

Language

Inability to converse in a language that is known by both the sender and receiver is the greatest barrier to effective communication. When a person uses inappropriate words while conversing or writing, it could lead to misunderstanding between the sender and a receiver.

Emotions

Your emotions could be a barrier to communication if you are engrossed in your emotions for some reason. In such cases, you tend to have trouble listening to others or understanding the message conveyed to you. A few of the emotional interference include hostility, anger, resentfulness and fear.

Lack of subject Knowledge

If a person who sends a message lacks subject knowledge then he may not be able to convey his message clearly. The receiver could misunderstand his message, and this could lead to a barrier to effective communication.

Stress

One of the major communication barriers faced by employees in most of the organization is stress. When a person is under immense stress, he may find it difficult to understand the message, leading to communication distortion. At the time of stress, our psychological frame of mind depends on our beliefs, experiences, goal and values. Thus, we fail to realize the essence of communication.

Magazine Journalism

Magazine journalism uses the traditional journalism tools of interviews, background research and writing to produce articles for consumer and trade magazines. Magazine journalism differs from newspaper journalism in at least five ways. Newspapers have a very broad audience with widely varying ages and intrests confined to one metropolitan area. Magazines have a national audience who has a very specialized interest in one particular topic. Magazines are published montly instead of daily. Therefore readers expect articles that are longer with much more in depth analysis of issues and trends.

Magazine, a publication issued at regular intervals, usually weekly or monthly, containing articles stories, photographs, advertisement and other features with a page size that is usually smaller than that of a newspaper but larger than that of a book.

Magazine today is an important source of information. It performs entertainment function very well and builds the opinion of reader on the other hand.

Brief History

  1. First magazine was review in 1740 written for nine years by Daniel Defoe. It consisted of four pages three times a week.
  2. In 1709"tattler" by Richard steel was published. It was edited by a fictitious editor called "isac Bickerstaff".
  3. In 1711 "spectator" by joseph Addison was published.

In sub-Continent

  1. First magazine published in 1870 was "ickey gazette" the editor was james Augustus hickey. It was an English magazine.
  2. After independence of Pakistan there was the birth of a new independent society in Pakistan.
  3. Journalism played up role in information of society.
  4. National press trust was created in 1963.
  5. Due to NPT declaration of magazine was difficult to obtain.
  6. General Yahya relaxed restrictions but imposed later on.
  7. General Ziaulhaq lifted restrictions for a short period.
  8. In 1988 interim government cancelled the press and publication ordinance and a new ordinance i-e Registration of printing and press ordinance (RPPO) was made.
  9. RPPO is still running in Pakistan.

Types Of Magazines

Following are the most common types of magazines.

  1. Magazines Of General Interest: These magazines cater the need of entire population and have large circulation. In Pakistan Lailo Nihar, Zindage, Urdu digest, Quomi digest is also in same category.
  2. News Magazine: These are periodic which are produced weekly or fortnightly articles on situation, politics, Economics, Religion, Industry, Sports atc are published e.g herald, weekly pulse and times.
  3. High Class Magazines: These magazine are aimed at selected audience, they appeal to a paricular class. these magazines are serious minded periodic offering high level reporting with emphasis upon literacy, ethical, social, political or scientific problems.
  4. Magazine Of Men's Interest: Like sports, love stories, fashion, photos.
  5. Technical Magazines: These magazines are for specialized sections society i.e engineering, medicine, gardening etc.
  6. The House Magazine Journals: These are produced by companies, organizations etc and are distributed free of cost to employees, customers. The purpose behind is to present the products of a company. House journals are produced by the public relation department of any organization.
  7. Literary Magazine: Before partition there were literary men like sirsyed, laulana zafar ali khan, hasrat mohani, mulana Muhammad ali jauhar etc. they were poets, writers and literary figures. They published literary magazines but after publication of general magazine their popularity suffered. At present newspapers of Pakistan publish their literary weekly. Magazines e.g Humayun, nairang-i-khayal, were very popular but they were closed. At present fanon, naqoosh, sawara, nia dur are famous.
  8. Religious Magazine: Tarjuman ul quran, tajuman ul hadith, iblagh, al islam etc.
  9. Film Magazine: Shama, Musawar, Nigar, Roman, Shabab, Mmtaz are examples.
  10. Sports Magazine: Cricketer, sports times etc.
  11. Magazine for Children: Phool, Taleem, Naunihal, Bacho ka digest are Examples.


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