Tue, Dec

The Central Nervous System | Spinal Cord Brain


The central nervous system lies within the skull and the spinal column.

  • 1. Spinal Cord.
  • 2. Brain.
  • Bathed by its own special fluid “cerebrospinal fluid”
  • 1. Nourishment.
  • 2. Protective cushion.
  • Peripheral nervous system transmits messages from parts of the body to central nervous system.
  • Messages from central nervous system to glands, muscles, and organs are also passed through peripheral nervous system.
  • Spinal Cord:

    • Primary function is to relay messages between the brain and the body.
    • On its own it also process some information, usually of emergency type like a reflex.
    • ---- > keen jerk.
    • ---- > touching a hot object.
    • Many forms of paralysis result from spinal cord damage.
    • Contains nervous ( bundles of neurons ) talking messages to and from brain.


    1. Quad Riplegia: voluntary muscle movement below neck is lost.

    2. Paraplegia: Unable to move any muscles in lower part of the body.


    • Brain is responsible for our thoughts, urges, feeling, messages, learning, emotions, hopes, dreams and many other sensation and perceptions.
    • Brain scanning techniques.
    • a. EEG electro encephalogram
    • b. PET position emission tomography.
    • c. FMRI functional magnetic resonance imaging.
    • d. TMSI transcranial magnetic stimulation imaging.
    • The brain is extraordinary adaptable and when people suffer from brain injury, uninjured portions of the brain can sometime take over the functions that were previously handled by the damage area.

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