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Psychology Intelligence



What Is Intelligence? Unlike weight, height, and age it cannot be measured Some described it as the ability to solve problems. Other describes it as capacity to adopt and learn from experience.


What Is Intelligence? Unlike weight, height, and age it cannot be measured Some described it as the ability to solve problems. Other describes it as capacity to adopt and learn from experience.

Other argue that intelligence includes characteristics such as creativity and inter-personal skills. The term intelligence also as different meanings in different culture’s.


In rural areas intelligence can be defined as the ability to adopt to environment learn from experience and good at inter-personal skills. In urban areas it can be the problem solving ability working efficiently in the available resources and good business skills.


According to psychologists it is the ability to understand the world think rationally and se resources effectively.

Theories Of Intelligence:

  1. To explain the nature of intelligence.
  2. To clarify the heredity and environment effect on intelligence.
  3. To explain whether intelligence is a unitary attribute or has many different kinds.


It is a single personality trait that can be described by a single score or a combination of different and distinct abilities.

The Two Factor Theory Of Charles Spearman(g & s)

According to spearman there are two factors of measuring intelligence, General intelligence factor ‘g’ and specific intelligence and factor ‘s’.

According to him, all aspects of intelligence correlate with each other and are controlled by ‘g’ g-factor is the way to measure intelligence level of and individual because it attempts to measure the entire mental capability –More of inherited capability.

This theory was based on the results of intelligence tests of different kinds (mathematical, verbal, spatial visualization skills). Taken by Different people.

  • People who were good at one text also did well on the other tests and vice-versa. Relation btw performance and different type of tests- G factor – General intelligence factor is behind this.(assumption). He developed his theory by applying a statistical technique called ‘Factor Analysis’ to a number of intelligence tests.

Today, Modern intelligence tests have transformed ‘g’ into IQ. Many psychologists believe that IQ is a good measure of a person’s general intelligence. Second part of the two factor theory is specific intelligence factor – The s-factor. More of self-developed by humans. The s-factor corresponds to only a single mental function S-factor arespecialized and account for a person’s specific abilities.


A person could be very intelligence in one mental function but weak in a different one. Specific factors have low correlation btw them while g-factor has correlation between at least two mental functions. The two factors combinedly account for the performance of a person on an intelligence test.

Fluid And Crystallized Intelligence: (Gf-Gc)

Developed by catted (1940) and extended by John Horn According to this theory there are two different kinds of intelligence –fluid and crystallized.

Fluid Intelligence:

Represents information processing cababilation, reasoning, and memory.


Arranging alphabets in descending or ascending order comparing two things solving puzzles it can also be called as the ability to perceive and manipulate information. This intelligence reaches its peak in the early adulthood startly from infancy and then declines through the middle to late adulthood.

  1. Infancy
  2. Childhood
  3. Early Adulthood
  4. Middle adulthood
  5. late adulthood

Fluid And Crystallized Intellectual Development Across the Life Span:

Crystallized Intelligence:

Represents the cumulative information, skills and strategies learned through experience and applying them in problem solving.


Calling Up Information from memory of previous experience to take part in a discussion or event or to solve a problem crystallized intelligence is commutative and increases throughout life span crystallized Intelligence has more cultural influence.

Thurston’s Seven Primary Mental Abilities:

Instead of viewing intelligence as a single general ability, Thurston developed a theory of ‘primary mental abilities’. These are seven in number and as follows:

  1. Verbal Comprehension — Vocabulary, concepts, words
  2. Reasoning — Discover rules and relationship.
  3. Perceptual Speed—Speed of Analogy.
  4. Numerical Ability — Problem Solving
  5. Word Fluency — Use Words Quickly & Fluency
  6. Associative Memory — Remember lists of digits & Characteristics
  7. Spatial Visualisation - Observe and manipulate objects in space.

He Further Argued that spearman’s g-factor was an average of a person’s ability on multiple independent domains.


He suggested that many tasks required more than one primary mental ability and each one is independent of the other. Such as solving a mathematical puzzle may require numerical ability as well as spatial violation along with perceptual speed and even memory.

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