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Development Psychology

Psychology
Typography

It is branch of psychology that studies the processes contributing to becoming an infant, a child an adolescent and a mature adult.

The branch of psychology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.

Development Psychology

Definition

It is branch of psychology that studies the processes contributing to becoming an infant, a child an adolescent and a mature adult.

The branch of pschology that studies the patterns of growth and change that occur throughout life.

Growth

Is is a process which involves the increase of size, complexity and the change in shape of bodies of living organism, it refers more to the physical aspect of growth it is a natural process.

Growth denotes quantitative changes, as it shows an increase in the size and structure of body and organs.

Development

Development refers to the progressive changes that take place with time in the behavior of the organism and leads to maturity, it involves nature.

Growth refers to orderly changes in the body with age while development includes experiences as well.

Development refers to changes that are qualitative and directional. These changes are improvements and more forward.

Maturation

It is the unfolding of biologically pre-determined patterns of behavior.

Example

Maturation can be seen in the development of sex characteristics like breasts, public hair, that occurs at the start of adolescence.

Environment affects the process of maturation starts by the end of puberty in humans.

Characteristics Of Development

Development if lifelong

Experiences, learning and changes in logical orientations of adults continue throughout the life and hence the development also continue throughout the life.

Developments in Multidimensional

It has more than one aspects like biological, cognitive, social and emotional.

Development in Multi directional

Development is not linear moving in one direction with a predictable pattern, there are increases, decreases, gains, and loses, predictable as well as un predictable changes.

Example

When a language has been acquired in childhood, such as mother tongue e.g English, urdu, Pashto, the capacity for acquiring second and third languages decreases later in development in socio-emotional development, individuals begin to have more relationships with the opposite sex. people when het old have less speed of information proceeding as opposed to adulthood and late childhood.

Development in Plastic

Development in an individual is not carved in stone rather it can be changed.

Example

Intellectual skills of old adults were improved in an adult study through re-training, the capacity of change plasticity is variables in different persons and at different stages in life.

Development in contextual

Individuals are through of as changing beings in changing world. it is because of the contextual of development that human are able to respond to acts on contests which include a person's biological makeup, physical environment, cognitive processes, historical contexts, social contexts and cultural contexts.

Studied by Multiple professionals

Human development is studied by psychologists, sociologists, anthropologists, nero[scientists and medical researchers.

Processes of Development

Biological Processes

Involves the development of an individual's physical nature such as the development of the brain, body weight, size, motor ability, puberty.

It also involves the decline in cardiovascular muscles in old age and other physical disabilities in the old age. In includes both normal and abnormal growth.

Cognitive Processes

These processes involves changes in the person's thought, intelligence and language.

Humans naturally grow and develop in their cognitive functioning, learning to rationalize and communicate more effectively.

As the age and experince increases, the ability to make good decisions and accurate judgments increases too.

Example

An elder brother explains many a times to his younger's brother how to play hide-and-seek but he spoils it every time. He doesn't understand to keep quite or will be found out.

Socio Emotional Processes

Involves changes in the individual's relationships with other people changes in emotions and personality. As an individual grows and changes, his/her relationship with other also change.

Example

A child may have close relationship with his grandmother when is 6 and less close and different in many ways when he is in 20's.

Cognitive Example

Solving puzzles, carrying out one's role effectively, memorizing a poem, falling in love, learning to control your emotions, smiling, fearing, angering, saddening etc.

Stages of Development

The Prenatal Period

It is the time of development from conception to birth from a single cell to a whole organism. the process taken about 9 month.

The Infancy Period

It is the development period from birth to 1-2 years. infants depend wholly on the adults for their needs. it is the period when the psychological abilities are developing such as language, symbolic through.

Early Childhood

It compresses of the period ranging from the age 2 -5 or 6 years. it starts after the end of infancy also called the "pre-school" period, during this period, young children are taught to become more self-sufficient by carrying for themselves, develop basic skills like following instructions, identifying letters and words, involve in playing with peers.

Middle and late Childhood

This period ranges from 6-11 years of age. A child is expected to develop proper skills of reading, writing and arithmetic.

A child learns socialization through peers, family, teachers and learns about the culture and norms of the society.

Adolescence

It is the period ranging from 12-18 or 22 years, in this period a child transactions from childhood to early adulthood.

Rapid physical changes occur in this stage such as gain in height, weight, maturation of sexual characteristics including development of breasts in female, public hairs growth in both males and females and the deeping of the voice.

In this stage the thoughts are more logical, abstract and idealistic.

Early Adulthood

This developmental period starts from late teens or early twenties and lasts through the thirties, in this period an individual is supposes to develop professional, intellectual and social skills to establish his personality, career and economic independence along with starting a family.

Middle Adulthood

This period ranges from 40-60 years of age. Children are raised, personal and social responsibilities are expanded and a person is expected to develop his emotional and social skills so as to cope with the responsibilities.

Late Adulthood

This period ranges from 60s till death. Individuals have to adjust with decreasing strengths and increasing weaknesses as well as health problems. new social roles having less responsibilities roles and more that of a mentor are to be mastered development can also be categorized as biological, cognitive and socia-emotional.



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