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Forest | Types In Pakistan Causes of Deforestation in Pakistan

Geography
Typography

Forest is a community of trees & associated organisms covering an area that utilize minerals, air, water to reproduce itself & serve mankind for different finished products. Desired level of forest that should cover the total area of a country is 20-30% of the entire country. Unfortunately, In Pakistan only 4.8 % of the total land area of Pakistan is covered with forests.

Forest is a community of trees and associated organisms covering an area that utilize minerals, air, water to reproduce itself ad serve mankind for different finished products. Desired level of forest that should cover the total area of a country is around 20-30% of the entire country. Unfortunately, Pakistan has a small area covered by forests i.e. only 4.8 % of the total land area of Pakistan is covered with forests.

Forest Types & their Distribution In Pakistan:

The forests of Pakistan are mainly based on the temperature and altitude. Main types of forests found in Pakistan are;

Alpine Forests:

Alpine forests are mostly found in northern areas i.e. Dir, Chitral and Kohistan. The trees in alpine forests have stunted growth due to low temperature and sunlight. These trees are mostly used as fuel food wood only.

Coniferous forests:

Major Areas:

Coniferous forests are wide spread forests and the major areas where they are found are Northern areas, Swat, Shangla, Abottabad, Mansehra, Rawalpindi, Islamabad, Murree, Balochistan  mountain (Quetta and Kallat division).

Characteristics:

  • Evergreen forests are conical in shape. Its leaves are small, thick, leathery and needle shaped.
  • These forests survive in low temperature and its sloping branches prevent snow accumulation.
  • Important species are chalghozas, deodar and sanober.

Importance:

  • Evergreen forests are important source for timber and cattle breading.
  • They add to the scenic beauty of the area, attract tourism and promote tourism industry.
  • They also play a vital role in environmental protection.

Tropical thorn forests:

Major Areas:

Tropical thorn forests are usually found in Punjab plains (Rakh), Sind plains (deserts), southern and western Baluchistan.

Characteristics:

  • Tropical thorn forests have low height (6-10 m) and are dominated by the thory hardwood scrubs.
  • Common species are kiker, ber, lasura, palosa and many others.
  • Sub tropical Scrub forests:

    Major Areas:

    Subtropical scrub forests occur at lower edges of Himalaya, Kala Chata, Sulaiman Ranges and the salt range.

    Characteristics:

    • Long and dry summer is prevailing factor in these forests.
    • Trees and scrubs are scattered and are mostly thorny but some are not e.g. olive and pomegranate.
    • Leaves are broad.
    • Pine-chir, Palosa and Ber are important species of Sub tropical scrub forests.
    • Importance:

      • Watershed protection
      • Supplying firewood
      • Grazing purposes

      River-rain or Bela forests:

      Major Areas:

      River-rain or Bela forests are usually found along the banks of river Indus and its tributaries.

      Characteristics:

      • Bela forests are usually planted linearly along the banks.
      • Provide important species such as Shisham and Babul, two very important and valuable species used for making furniture and agricultural implements.

      Mangrove forests:

      Major Areas:

      Mangroove forests are found around Indus delta, its adjoining areas and Hub Delta.

      Characteristics:

      • Low height trees (3m) but in areas of plenty water, its height may reach to 8m.
      • Survive in sea water and their roots are spread in sea water.
      • Limited number of species in polluted water.

      Uses:

      • Supply of firewood.
      • Breeding grounds of fish and trees.
      • Coastal area people use it as timber.

      Irrigated forests

      • Major areas of irrigated forests are changa manga near Lahore, wan bachra in thal, chichawatni in Sahiwal district, Ghulam Muhammad and Guddu Barrage.
      • Species which are of economic importance such as Shisham, Babul, Eucaphytus are planted in large blocks.
      • When planted in linear form, they produce shade.
      • Also important source of timber and firewood.

      Causes Of Deforestation In Pakistan:

      Clearing of forest land is called deforestation. Pakistan’s forest resources are shrinking at a rate of one percent which will have dreadful effects on the people of Pakistan. Some of the main causes of this large scale deforestation in Pakistan are clearing of land, urbanization, building of roads, industrialization and overgrazing of land.



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