World’s total population i.e. total human beings living on this planet earth has crossed the 7 billion mark.
This huge population is not distributed evenly throughout the world as the continent of Asia is home of around 4 billion people, Africa 1 billion, Europe 733 million people, Latin America and Caribbean 589 million, North America of 352 million and Australia and Antarctica combine 35 million people. Not a single factor is responsible for this variable distribution and density of Population.
Factors influencing Population Density and Population Distribution:
Availability of Water:
It is one of the main factor which force people to settle in a particular area as water is used for drinking, crops growth, cattle breeding etc.
People prefer to live in plain areas as these areas are easy to access, and are feasible for communication, agricultural and industrial activities.
Another important factor for dense population in an area is climate. People prefer to live in areas which have moderate climate-thus avoiding extreme climates like that in Antarctica.
Most of the people who are linked with agriculture prefer to live in areas which are fertile.
Better job opportunities, education and health facilities are also responsible for dense population in a limited area. Urban cities are densely populated as it has all these facilities. To name a few, Tokyo, London, New York, Dubai are some of the famous cities in the world.
Areas rich in minerals attract people interested in mining activities and thus companies of international standard which in turn attract people in search of jobs thus increase in population of that area.
Industries not only require labors but also operators, management staff, engineers, doctors etc as it has its own residential area.
Need for High Income:
Farmers in agricultural areas require larger work force to increase crop yield and income. They do not think about increased population.
Religious Cultural Factors:
Islam and Christianity strongly criticize family planning therefore; people who are very religious minded do not care for increased population. People try to live at places where people of same culture are present.
Lack of Education:
Lack of education is also one of the greatest factors of increase in population as people are unaware of the economic burden, increased population put on country’s economy.
Frequent government changes results in inconsistency of policies against high population growth rate. The government of France now gives incentives to the parents for giving births to more children as their population growth rate is now negative.
Age of Marriage:
In the Least Developed Countries (LDCs), females get married at very young age and this also contributes to high population growth in Least Developed Countries.
Wish for a Boy:
People also wish for a baby boy who would be a source of income for the parents in their old age. In wish of a boy, sometimes people have more daughters as well.
Decrease in Death Rate:
The advanced medical facilities have caused decrease in death rate which has also contributed to the increase in population density.
Political Unrest or War:
Areas which are involved in war or are experiencing political unrest, people tend to move from that areas which result in less population at one and increase in another area.
Effects of Overpopulation:
Overpopulation in one way or the other has many adverse effects. Some of the main effects are as follows:
- Increases in noise pollution, water pollution, air pollution, soil contamination.
- Reduction in natural resources.
- Deforestation, changes in atmospheric composition.
- Loss of arable land.
- High infant and child mortality due to poverty.
- Emergence of epidemics and pandemics.
- Standard of living reduced and crime rate increases for survival.
- Increased conflicts over scarce resources.