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Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex Hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex


Because of its importance it is further divided into detailed sections.

  1. Frontal lobes.
  2. Parietal lobes.
  3. Occipital lobes.
  4. Temporal lobes.

Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex:

Because of its importance it is further divided into detailed sections.

  1. Frontal lobes.
  2. Parietal lobes.
  3. Occipital lobes.
  4. Temporal lobes.

Frontal lobes:

  • Lie at the front of the brain, just behind the forehead.
  • More area is given to parts that we have fine control over and less area given to large parts that made clued movements like thighs, shoulders etc.
  • Play important role in thinking, decision making, organizing and behavior and predicting the consequences of air action. For example J.Z and phi ease gags two extremely similar personalities whose frontal lobes have been damaged. Changed considerably from polite “to unable to be reasoned with.” Unemployable from responsible to irresponsible, dishonest and irritable.
  • Contains broca’s area which is responsible for generating language (speaking language).
  • Inhabits socially inappropriate behavior.
  • Contains motor area near the middle top of head.
  • Damage to this part can result in paralysis.

Parietal Lobes:

  • Just behind the frontal lobes.
  • The strip of parietal lobes running parallel to the motor area is called somato sensory area.
  • Contains and process information about where our hands are and what they are doing.
  • Different area surf different parts of the body.

Occipital Lobes:

  • It is located at the base of the back of the head.
  • Most important area is visual area (primary visual cortex).
  • Processes visual information its damage can cause partial or complex blindness.

Temporal Lobes:

  • The thermal lobe occupies the middle are at the base of the cerebrum.
  • Near the ears lies the hearing area involved in sensing sound primary auditory cortex.
  • Wernicks area, the area of language understanding messages from the near auditory area arrive to wernicke’s area for understanding of language.
  • Damage to this area causes wernicke’s aphasia they can make speech sounds though having little sense but cannot understand language.

Hemispheres of the Cerebral Cortex:

  • Both hemispheres are divided by corpus callous.
  • Each hemispheres controls the opposite side of the body.
  • Each play different but complimentary roles in processing information for example the left hemisphere plays a role in language processing and verbal competence such as speaking reading thinking and reasoning while the right side understands spatial relationships recognition of patterns and drawing music and expressing emotions.


The left hemisphere tends to process information sequentially one bit at a time while the right one process information globally and as a whole.


The right side of the brain often take over some of the functions of the left side especially in young children if a person suffers injury to the left side of the brain.

Peripheral Neruos System:

Nerves branching out from the spinal cord and brain. Nerves of PNS transfer messages from the body to CNS and from CNS to body, organs and glands PNS is divided into.

Somatic Nervous System:

  • Carries messages to the skeletal muscles from CNS to control movements of the body.
  • It includes both voluntary movements like, eating, walking, writing, and involuntary such as reflexes when touching a hot object or closing of eyes when a hand is waved near to it.
  • Receives messages from the sense organs such as skin eyes and skeletal muscles and joints and transmits them to central nervous system for deciphering and interpreting.

Autonomic Nervous System:

  • Nerves that carry messages to and from glands and visceral organs (heart, stomach, intestine, etc,)
  • These organ function involuntary our awareness.
  • Breathing, digestion, blood flow, heartbeat, etc,
  • Only effect skeleton muscles during stress.

Two Primary functions:

Essential body functions:

This function regulate essential body function.


Also play a role in emotions. When a person gets very emotional, minor changes occur in the body which can also cause diarrhea, headache or stomachache.

these two further Composed of two parts.

1. Sympathetic nervous system.

2. Parasympathetic nervous system.

These two systems work together to adjust and balance the functioning of the body according to the circumstances that the individual faces.

Sympathetic Nervous System:

  • The sympathetic nervous system prepares the body to respond to psychological stress or physical stress by activating some organs to improve our ability to respond and inhibiting other organs which are not needed at that time.
  • For example the sympathetic nervous system
  • Dilates the pupi of the eye to let more light in.
  • It also speed up the heart beat.
  • Dilates, bronchi to increase air flow in.
  • Decreases salutation.
  • Inhabitants the process of digestion (stomach, pancreases, intestines)
  • Stimulates secretion of epinephrine.
  • Releases sugar from the liver.
  • Relaxes urinary bladder and increases blood flow to the muscles.

Parasympathetic Nervous System:

  • When the stress is gone the parasympathetic NS takes control from the sympathetic NS to maintain balanced regulation of the internal organs and body muscles.
  • When stress level is low it stimulates maintenance activities and energy conservation in the body for example.
  • Constricts the pupils of the eyes.
  • Increases salivation to facilitate digestion.
  • Regulates heart beat by slowing it down.
  • Activates digestive processes.
  • Contracts the urinary bladder.
  • Reduces blood flow to muscles, and reduces muscle tension.
  • Inhibits epinephrine from the adrenal gladder.

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