Psychology is the scientific study of human behaviour including thoughts, emotions, perceptions, reasoning, memories, biological and activities.
- Psychology is the scientific study of behavior and mental process including thoughts emotions, perceptions, reasoning, memories and biological activities.
- Psychologist try to describe, predict and explain human behavior and mental process. They also help to change and improve the lives of people and the world they live in. Psychology As Science.
- Scientific knowledge is obtained largely through experiment action and not merely a collection of facts scientific observations are repeatable reproducible and verifiable and so are psychological observations and experiment e.g.
- An experiment can be designed to find out answers to question like...
- Do frustrated children tend to exhibit regressive behavior.
- Data from such experiments can be generalized into laws which can then be used to predict phenomena falling inside these laws.
- Though psychology has not as yet formulated precise laws and principles as in physics or chemistry but it has developed valid generalizations about behaviour which either.
- Approach the status of laws e.g. Weber’s law.
- Seems likely do so in the future e.g. principal of reinforcement, law effect.
Steps in the Scientific Process :
- Initial observation / question.
- Form hypothesis ... Explanation or prediction.
- Test hypothesis .... Conduct research, gather evidence.
- Analyze data... draw conclusions.
- Theory... explaining how and why.
- New hypothesis.
Aims and Objectives of Psychology :
- How people and animal behave.
Explain and understand:
- Causes of the behavior
- To know the needs of people / society.
- To understand the causes reasons of frustration.
- To understand the behavior ( observe + experiment).
- How people and animals behave in certain Conditions (e.g. in a simple reflex).
Influence or Control :
- Through establishment of facts and principles.
- Effective for sustainable society and to avoid hiccups in routine life.
There are no shortcuts for understanding and predicting human behavior, only through careful research and scientific techniques it is possible.