The de facto ruler of Mysore was one of the few rulers of India who opposed the British. Son of Hiader Ali and his mother Fatima the second wife of Haider Ali. Born on 20 November 1750, was the ruler of Mysore...
The de facto ruler of Mysore was one of the few rulers of India who opposed the British. Son of Hiader Ali and his mother Fatima the second wife of Haider Ali. Born on 20 November 1750, was the ruler of Mysore. After the death of his father Haider Ali, Tipu Sultan took over the ruling of Mysore and fought many battles against the British and other Hindu states. He was also a scholar and also a poet. Though he fought against other Hindu states and the British, he was no against any religion and this can be seen from the fact that the majority of his subjects were Hindus and he built the first Church in Mysore. From the time of Haider Ali, Mysore had alliance with the French and thus the Kingdom of Mysore was against the British.
Though Tipu Sultan won only the second Anglo-Mysore war, he was still strong at will and determined to fight to the end. This determination led Tipu Sultan to fight the third and fourth Anglo-Mysore wars in which Tipu Sultan was defeated and in the fourth war he was killed. Under the leadership of his father, at the age of sixteen he led a corps of cavalry during the First Anglo-Mysore war. During the second Anglo-Mysore war,
Tipu Sultan was dispatched by his father along with 10,000 men to intercept Colonel Baillie before his forces joined with the army of Sir Hector Munro. When Tipu Sultan intercepted Colonel Baillie a battle ensured and was won by Tipu Sultan. During this war Haider Ali died of cancer and Tipu Sultan raised to power. By now Tipu Sultan was an experienced worrier and had no problem in administrating the battle field. The second Anglo-Mysore war came to an end in 1784, with Tipu Sultan dictating the terms to the British. This was the last time an Indian ruler would ever dictate his terms to the British. And these terms were called the Treaty of Mangalore.
After the war, Tipu Sultan turned towards civilian issues and he built a church, dam and many roads. He also completed the Lal Bagh, which had been started by his father. He focused on trade and this could be seen from the fact that his trade route extended from Sri Lanka to Iran. Apart from he is also credited for the invention of rockets that were used to inflict a major blow to the British. In matter of finance he is said to have started a coinage system and banking system.
In 1789 Tipu Sultan gathered an army and attacked the Travancore, as it was the ally of the British and this started the third Anglo-Mysore war. Tipu Sultan faced tough resistance from the Travancore army and had hard time penetrating the lines. The ruler of Travancore appealed the British for help and this appeal was accepted and now Tipu Sultan had to face the army of Travancore, British and now the newly allied Marathas and the Niazm. During this battle Tipo Sultan failed to convince the French to join him in the battle and thus he had to start a deal for surrender. In return for surrender, Tipu Sultan had to agree to terms like ceding half of the territories of Mysore to the British and also send his two sons as hostages of war.
When the French army was defeated in Egypt at the hands of British, the British turned its full attention towards Tipu Sultan and this ensured the siege of Seringapatam the capital of Mysore. This was the fourth Anglo-Mysore war in which the city was surrounded by 26,000 British East India Company troops supported by 10 battalions and over 1600 cavilry by the Nizam of Hydrabad. While on the other hand Tipu Sultan had an army of 30,000 men against about 50,000 men of the British and its allies. When the British broke in, on May 4th 1799, Tipu Sultan was killed defending his capital. Tipu Sultan is remembered as the Tiger of Mysore.