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Who Fought Against The World And Fought Against Themselves

History
Typography

The moors invaded Spain in 711AD.These Muslims from Morocco had been asked to help settle a conflict concerning which of the rival Visigoth should reign as king.

The moors invaded Spain in 711AD.These Muslims from Morocco had been asked to help settle a conflict concerning which of the rival Visigoth should reign as king With in seven years, the moors and their Arab allies had conquered the peninsula except for isolated pockets of resistance, mainly in the northern mountains. It was there in the north that the Christians began to mobilize for reconquest, a goal that was not achieved for eight centuries. The Muslims gained their greatest power in southern Spain.

There the greatest of Muslim rulers,Abd-ur-Rehman, the third(891-961) who called himself "Khalifa-e-Qartaba" (caliph of Cardoba) and "Amir-ul-momineen"(commander of the faithful)help to make "Qartaba"one of the greatest European centers of cultureand commerce. .In addition, agriculture and industry advance under the Muslims the cultivation of such product aasfigs, oranges,lemons,sugarcane,melons and rice.It remains important today. The Muslims expanded and improved the old Roman irrigation system.The Roman rule lasted for six hundred years(200 BC to 400 AC.Not only Hispani,s silk and woolen, leather and ceramics,but also mine work, Armour and swords from Toledo and Qardoba were traded all over Europe.

The Muslims left only a handful of architectural monuments,the great “Masjid-e-Qartaba”,the alhambra at “Garnata”(Granada)and the Giralda Tower at Seville.Their most in during legacy was-intellectual.The Muslim brought to Spain and yo Europe the culture of ancient Greece whose last intellectual center, Alexandria had been conquered by Arab in AD 642

As historians,philosophers,grammarians, and astronomers, the Muslim made important contribution to the development of the Europe thinking.Pharmacology and botany become formal sciences as a result of the Muslim work in these fields,and two forms of trigonometry, plan and spherical, were developed by them in Spain. Great as there achievements were,the Muslims were often divided among themselves.

As the Christians fought their way south,various kingdoms like Cacilia, Austria's,Leon, Castile, Aragon,Navaree and Catalonia were established. The recapture of the important cities can, perhaps, be best summarized in dates Cawadonga in 718,Toledo in 1085, Qordoba in 1236,Sevillie in 1248,and finally Garanda in 1492.



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